What is the penetrance of the variants most likely to be identified as secondary findings in cardiomyopathy-associated genes?

We are pleased to share our preprint (McGurk et al.) on the penetrance of  rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes: a cross-sectional approach to estimate penetrance for secondary findings.

The penetrance of cardiomyopathies (CMs) is incomplete and age-related, and expressivity is highly variable. These features present huge challenges for disease management. In particular, the penetrance of individual variants in CM-associated genes is incompletely characterised and poorly understood, especially when identified in asymptomatic individuals without family history.

With the growing availability of whole exome sequencing in wider clinical settings and consumer-initiated elective genomic testing, the importance of estimating the penetrance of individual variants identified as secondary findings (SFs) to guide intervention is ever-increasing. Genes associated with inherited CMs make up one-fifth of the 78 genes recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG SF v3.1) for reporting SFs during clinical sequencing. Variant-specific estimates of penetrance are required to appropriately inform clinical practice and to fully utilise genetics as a tool to individualise the risk of developing disease in asymptomatic carriers.

We apply a cross-sectional approach, using a method that compares the allele frequency of individual rare variants in large cohorts of cases and reference populations to estimate penetrance. Sequencing data for 10,400 individuals referred for HCM genetic panel sequencing and 2,564 individuals referred for DCM genetic panel sequencing were included in the analysis. To estimate the prevalence of CMs, a literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken, resulting in prevalence estimates for HCM (1:543; 1:1,300 women, 1:360 men) and DCM (1:220; 1:340 women, 1:160 men).

In aggregate, the penetrance by late adulthood of rare, pathogenic variants (23% for HCM, 35% for DCM) and likely pathogenic variants (7% for HCM, 10% for DCM) was substantial for dominant CM. Penetrance was significantly higher for variant subgroups annotated as loss of function or ultra-rare, and for males compared to females for variants in HCM-associated genes.

We estimated variant-specific penetrance for 316 recurrent variants most likely to be identified as SFs (51% HCM and 17% DCM cases). 49 variants were observed at least ten times (14% of cases) in HCM-associated genes. Median penetrance was 14.6% (±14.4% SD). We explore estimates of penetrance by age, sex, and ancestry, and simulate the impact of including future cohorts.

This dataset is the first to report penetrance of individual variants at scale and will inform the management of individuals undergoing genetic screening for SFs. While most variants had low penetrance and the costs and harms of screening are unclear, some carriers of highly penetrant variants may benefit from SFs.

Identification of an increased lifetime risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in UK Biobank participants with scoliosis

We are pleased to share a new article by Valentina Santofimio on research she completed during her masters programme with us.

The abnormal curvature of the spine in scoliosis patients can impact organs within the ribcage including the heart. Most cardiac studies of scoliosis patients to date surround investigations into congenital heart disease. The relationship between scoliosis and non-congenital cardiac manifestations in adults is not well characterised.

Our study focused on investigating the impact of scoliosis on the heart through assessment of cardiac MRI (CMR) traits in the UK Biobank (UKB) adult population cohort. A total of 4,095 (0.8%, 1 in 120) UKB participants were identified to have all-cause scoliosis.

Significant associations were found between scoliosis and older age, female sex, heart failure, valve disease, hypercholesterolemia, diagnosis of hypertension, and decreased enrolment for CMR. We identified altered radial and longitudinal peak diastolic strain rates (PDSR) in participants with scoliosis with CMR available compared to participants without diagnosis of scoliosis. 3D cardiac modelling also showed altered cardiac strain.

A significantly increased lifetime risk of MACE was observed for UKB participants with scoliosis (HR=1.45, P<0.001), mainly driven by heart failure (HR=1.58, P<0.001) and atrial fibrillation (HR=1.54, P<0.001). The probability of MACE doubled in males into older age (from 60 years of age). This may be caused through the altered cardiac diastolic strain rates observed in participants with scoliosis.

The abnormal curvature of the spine can increase mechanical constraint on the heart which may result in diastolic dysfunction and the severity of the spinal deformity has been shown to aggravate ventricular and right atrial pressure.

Scoliosis may be an important modifier of cardiac strain in the adult population. This has clinical implications for the consideration of undertaking scoliosis treatment surgery. However, further research is required to follow up the role of scoliosis in cardiac manifestations in a clinical setting, alongside genetic analyses to assess causality.